Modal verbs | English by chris

Modal verbs

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Modal auxiliaries (กริยาช่วย) แบบง่ายๆ

Can = สามารถ
1- Can indicates possibility or ability
ใช้พูดถึง ความเป็นไปได้ หรือ ความสามารถ

Tom can help you.
Wild animals can be dangerous.
Dining out can be costly.


2- In questions, the modal can requests permission to do something or to ask about possibilities.
ส่วนคำถาม ใช้เพื่อขออนุญาต หรือ ถามเรื่องความสามารถ/ความเป็นไปได้ของเหตุการณ์

Can I help you?
Can Mike come over for dinner?
Who can answer the next question?
When can we get back the results?

1 – Could indicates possibility or ability in the past.
ใช้พูดถึง ความเป็นไปได้ หรือ ความสามารถในอดีต

I could have told you that.
It could have been a disaster.
When I was young, I could run very fast.

2- Could speculates about future possibilities. Could and might are interchangeable.

It could / might rain tonight.
That could / might be dangerous.

3- In questions, could speculates about present possibilities.

Could she be the murderer?
Could this be a mistake?

4- The model can also make a request. Can and could are interchangeable, but could is more polite.

Could / Can you open your window?
Could / Can you help me move this sofa?

5- The modal could is also used to form the conditional hypothetical situations.

If you go with me, you could do some clothes shopping too.
We could of swam, if you brought your membership card
Everyone could have gone by now, if you weren’t so late in finishing.

Shall / Will = จะ

1- These modals indicate an expected future action.

I will / shall close the door for you.
Tom will / shall meet us at the train station.
They will / shall leave tomorrow at 8:00.

Will asks a favor.

Will / Shall you turn off the TV?
Will / Shall you go with me please?

Will asks for information or knowledge.

Will / Shall Tom ever pay you back?
Will / Shall Mars be visited by humans within twenty years?
Will / Shall you be finished soon?

Shall is for suggestions or offers

Shall / Will we go to the cinema tonight?
I shall / will do the laundry for you, if you’d like?
What shall / will we do tomorrow? Does anybody have any ideas?

May / Might = อาจจะ

1- The modals may and might indicate an uncertain future action. These two modals are interchangeable.

I may / might go to the park, or I may / might stay home.
This may / might be a bad idea.
It may / might rain tonight.

2- May or can gives instructions or permission.

You may / can now board the airplane.
You may / can begin the exam in ten minutes.
You may / can continue your journey after paying the fee.

3- In yes-no questions that make a request, you can use may or can. May is more polite.
ใช้ในประโยคขอร้อง May จะฟังดูสุภาพกว่า can

May / Can I see your driver’s license?
May / Can we have some more water, please?
May / Can he go now?

Must / have to / got to = ต้อง

1- The modal must indicates a strong obligation.

You must see this movie.
Tom must see a doctor immediately.

2- Must also indicates an assumption or probability.

My watch must be broken.
He must have done that before moving to Spain.

3- Must can sometimes form rhetorical questions, when you want the person to stop doing something.
ใช้ในคำถามที่ไม่ต้องการคำตอบ พูดลอยๆ ไปอย่างนั้น

Must you be so noisy? = Be quiet
Must you ask so many questions? = Stop asking questions
Should / Ought to = ควร

The modals should and ought to indicate an obligation. These two modals are synonymous.

You should / ought to call your mother.
Should he call her?
Should we pay now?

Would = ขอ / จะ

Would + like is a polite way of stating a request.

I would like white wine with my fish.
We would like a room with a view.

In questions, would + subject + like is a polite request for a choice to be made.

Would is used to from conditional hypothetical situations

I would go with you if I didn’t have to work.
If I had not had to work, I would have gone with you.
She would be surprised if you came to the party.
Tom would drive, but he doesn’t have a license.

Would introduces habitual actions in the past.

When I was a student, I would go swimming every day.
When Tom lived in France, he would write me long letters.

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